This page explains what you can do about:
No periods (absent periods)
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Before you see your GP about period problems, it can be useful to keep a diary of your symptoms throughout the menstrual cycle. This can give your doctor a detailed idea of what happens, and when, during your cycle.
Pain during periods is common. It's caused by the womb contracting to push out the blood.
Exercise may help relieve the pain, as well as taking over-the-counter painkillers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. Ask your pharmacist for advice.
See your GP if the pain is so severe that it affects your daily life. Hormonal contraception (such as the combined pill, the intrauterine system (IUS), the contraceptive patch or the contraceptive injection) can reduce period pain.
Read more about painful periods.
Some women naturally have heavier periods than others, but if your periods are so heavy that they impact your life, there is help available.
Talk to your GP about your bleeding, including how often you have to change your sanitary protection (towels, tampons or menstrual cup).
Your GP can investigate why you're experiencing heavy bleeding. These investigations may include blood tests and scans.
Treatments for heavy periods can include:
Read more about heavy periods, including treatment.
You can use this tool to check if your periods are heavy.
A period normally lasts two to seven days, with the average period being five days long.
The length of the menstrual cycle varies from woman to woman, but the average is to have periods every 28 days. Regular cycles that are longer or shorter than this, from 21-40 days, are normal.
But some women have an irregular menstrual cycle.
This is where there is a wide variation in:
- the time between your periods (they may arrive early or late)
- the amount of blood you lose (periods may be heavy or light)
- the number of days the period lasts
Irregular periods can be common during puberty and just before the menopause. Changing your method of contraception can also disturb your normal menstrual cycle.
Read more about irregular periods, including what causes these and when treatment may be necessary.
Stopped or missed periods
There are many reasons why a woman may miss her usual monthly period, or why periods may stop altogether. Most of the time the cause is nothing to worry about.
Some common reasons are:
- sudden weight loss
- being overweight or obese
- extreme overexercising
- reaching the menopause
If you periods stop and you're concerned, see your GP.
Read more about stopped or missed periods.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
PMS is thought to be linked to changing levels of hormones throughout the menstrual cycle.
Not all women experience PMS. Among those who do, the range and severity of symptoms can vary.
Symptoms may include:
- mood swings
- feeling depressed or irritable
- breast tenderness
Symptoms appear and can intensify during the second half of your menstrual cycle, and then ease and disappear after your period starts.
Read more about PMS, including symptoms and treatment.
Endometriosis is a condition where tissue that behaves like the lining of the womb (endometrium) is found in other areas of the body, such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
Not all women have symptoms, but endometriosis can cause:
- painful, heavy or irregular periods
- pelvic pain
- pain during or after sex
- pain or discomfort when going to the toilet
- bleeding from your bottom
- feeling tired all the time
See your GP if you have symptoms of endometriosis, especially if they're having a big impact on your life.
Read more about endometriosis, including how it's diagnosed and treated.
Some women get a one-sided pain in their lower abdomen when they ovulate.
The pain can be a dull cramp or a sharp and sudden twinge. It can last just a few minutes or continue for a day or two. Some women notice a little vaginal bleeding when it happens.
Painful ovulation can usually be eased by simple remedies like soaking in a hot bath or taking an over-the-counter painkiller, such as paracetamol.
If you're in a lot of discomfort, see your GP about other treatment options.
Read more about ovulation pain.
Read more about periods.